Invest News DetailAA - Turkey's Koc Holding has been included in the European Commission's list of top companies investing the largest sums in research and development (R&D), said the report this week. The European Commission report highlighted that Koc Holding has been ranked 427th in the list with last year's investment of EUR 147.2 million. Koc Holding increased its R&D investments by 43.1 percent in 2008 compared to 2007, according to the report. In the list of the top 10 R&D investors, Toyota Motor is in first place. The EU has two companies, Volkswagen (EUR 5.93 billion), making it the largest EU R&D investor, and Nokia (EUR 5.32 billion).